Solid tumour oncology deals with the treatment of solid tumours or solid cancers.
Solid cancers are malignant tumours, i.e. tumours that originated at one part of the body and then spread to different parts of the body. These tumours are abnormal masses of tissue that does not contain any cysts or liquid areas. Depending on the type of cells affected, they can be classified as sarcomas, carcinomas and many more. Solid cancers may occur in the bones, muscles or different organs.
Haemato-oncology involves studying and treating cancers of the blood, or Lymphatic Organs known as haematological cancers. The cells affected in Haematological disorders are mainly the RBC’s, WBC’s and / or platelets.
Haematological cancers are cancers that mainly affect the blood, bone marrow and lymph nodes. These cancers are either called leukaemia, lymphoma or myeloma, based on the type of blood cell that has been affected.
Bone Marrow transplantation or Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a medical procedure performed to replace the bone marrow that has been damaged or destroyed by disease, hemotherapy or infection. This procedure involves transplanting blood stem cells, which travel to the bone marrow where they produce new blood cells and promote further growth of new marrow.
Preventive oncology involves various measures taken to prevent the development of cancer in patients. This includes identifying causes and developing measures to remove or counteract them. The practice of prevention is dependent upon both individual efforts to improve lifestyle and seek preventive screening, and socioeconomic or public policy related to cancer prevention.
This could include implementing lifestyle changes pertaining to diet or physical activity. Some research supports that certain medications and vaccines could help reduce the risk of cancer. Another way of preventing cancer is by frequently screening for any signs of development of cancer, such as the presence of precancerous cells.
Palliative care is care given to improve the quality of life of patients who have serious or life-threatening cancer. This form of care is approached by addressing the person as a whole, not just their disease. The goal is to prevent or treat, as early as possible, the symptoms and side effects of the disease and its treatment, in addition to any related psychological, social, and spiritual problems. Palliative care is also called comfort care, supportive care, and symptom management. Patients may receive palliative care in the hospital, an outpatient clinic, a long-term care facility, or at home under the direction of a physician.
Onco-Genetic Counseling involves evaluating family histories of cancer and determining whether patients or their relatives should be tested for gene mutations that can cause hereditary oncologic syndromes, and which tests they should have.
Once the patients receive the test results, the patients, with the help of their doctor, can make decisions about prevention or management of their cancers, and also offer psychosocial support.
Studying the genes can also help doctors tailor the ideal therapy for their patients. Knowing these things can make an enormous difference in the quality of life and longevity for patients, including some with cancer and some being followed by oncologists because their family histories make cancer likely.
This is a form of cancer therapy that is designed based on your genes and your specific disease. Genes are the information that tells the cells in your body how to grow and develop. Many cancers affect or involve specific genes.
The huge advantage of opting for this treatment is that it has far fewer side effects when compared to the general cancer treatment, as it is designed to be more specific. A personalised cancer screening or cancer treatment plan may include:
This type of treatment is also used in the treatment of cancers. This method of treatment involves boosting the body’s natural defence systems to fight cancer. This form of treatment focuses on the immune system rather than cancer directly.
Immunotherapy focuses on slowing or entirely stopping the growth of cancer cells or preventing it from spreading to different parts of the body. Some common forms of immunotherapy include Monoclonal antibodies and tumour-agnostic therapies, Non-specific immunotherapies, Oncolytic virus therapy, T-cell therapy or cancer vaccines.