Gynaecological ultrasound

Gynaecological ultrasound is a medicinal technique used to examine conditions affecting the organs in a woman's pelvis - the uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries. It involves producing images of the interior of the human body through high-frequency sound waves. It is also used during pregnancy to monitor the health and development of the embryo or fetus or to measure the flow of blood in the arteries to detect blockages. The testing is safe and easy to perform.


Infertility is the condition of the reproductive system defined by the failure to conceive after 12 months or more of having unprotected and regular intercourse. There are two types of Infertility - primary and secondary.
Primary Infertility: It refers to couples who have not become pregnant after at least one year having sex without using birth control methods.
Secondary Infertility: It refers to couples who have been able to get pregnant at least once, but now are unable to conceive.
Infertility may be caused by problems with egg or sperm production, genetic factors, age, or too much exposure to certain chemicals and toxins. Correct diagnosis, however, can help you find the cause and get the proper treatment to help you conceive.


Laparoscopy, also known as minimally invasive surgery is a way of doing the surgery using small incisions (cuts). It is different from “open” surgery where the incision on the skin can be several inches long. Laparoscopy is done in cases where there is a need to diagnosis conditions or performs surgery in the abdominal and pelvic area like to remove the uterus, fallopian tube or ovaries, to diagnose or treat endometriosis, to assist female infertility, take a biopsy for testing, etc. Opting for laparoscopy has many benefits. There is less pain after laparoscopic surgery than after open abdominal surgery, which involves larger incisions, more extended hospital stays, and longer recovery times. Recovery from laparoscopic surgery generally is faster than recovery from open abdominal surgery. The smaller incisions that are used allow you to heal faster and have smaller scars. The risk of infection also is lower than with open surgery.


Hysteroscopy is the inspection of the uterine cavity by endoscopy with access through the cervix to diagnose and treat causes of abnormal bleeding. It is done with the help of a hysteroscope, a thin, lighted tube that is inserted into the vagina to examine the cervix and inside of the uterus. A hysteroscopy can be used to: investigate symptoms or problems – such as heavy periods, unusual vaginal bleeding, postmenopausal bleeding, pelvic pain, repeated miscarriages or difficulty getting pregnant: diagnose conditions – such as fibroids and polyps (non-cancerous growths in the womb) The procedure shouldn't be painful. However, you may experience some cramping during the procedure. Your doctor may order some sedative for you to take beforehand so that you'll be more relaxed. The extent of anaesthesia you need will depend on the purpose of your hysteroscopy.


A pap smear or Papanicolaou test is a screening test meant to detect pre-cancerous and cancerous cells by taking a sample (smear) of cells from the cervix. It can detect certain viral infections such as human papillomavirus (HPV), which is known to cause cervical cancer. Most abnormal Pap smear results indicate the early stages of the disease and need reasonable observation by a doctor. During the routine procedure, cells from your cervix are gently scraped away and examined for abnormal growth. It's done in your doctor's office or clinic and takes about 10 to 20 minutes. The test should not be performed during your menstrual period, since the presence of blood may interfere with the results. The best time to schedule a Pap smear is two weeks after the start of your last menstrual period.

PCOD/PCOS (Polycystic ovary syndrome)

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or polycystic ovary disease (PCOD) is a problem in which a woman's hormones are out of balance. It can cause problems with your periods and make it difficult to get pregnant. Symptoms of PCOS include excess hair (hirsutism), scalp hair loss, acne, weight gain, difficulties with fertility, increased anxiety and depression and irregular or infrequent periods. It is one of the most common causes of female infertility, but you can still get pregnant with PCOS. While some women with PCOS need IVF, the vast majority can get pregnant using lower-tech fertility treatments. PCOS is a lifelong condition and can not be fully treated. However, the severity can be controlled by getting proper medication and treatments like birth control pills to regularise periods, medications to prevent diabetes, statins to control high cholesterol, hormones to increase fertility and procedures to remove excess hair. Physical exercise and a healthy diet may also help.

Normal Vaginal Delivery (NVD)

A normal Vaginal Delivery is said to be a healthy birth of a baby with low-risk at the start of labour and remaining so throughout labour and delivery. The baby is born in the vertex position between 37 and 42 completed weeks of pregnancy. A vaginal examination is first done to determine the location and station of the fetal head. When effacement is complete, and the cervix is fully dilated, the woman is told to bear down and strain with each contraction to move the head through the pelvis. The clinician also helps move the baby into position to be born and controls the progress of the head to effect a slow, safe delivery.

Caesarean Section (C Section)

Cesarean delivery is typically performed when complications from pregnancy make traditional vaginal birth difficult or put the mother or child at risk. Often cesarean deliveries are planned early in the pregnancy, but they’re most often performed when complications arise during the labour. The various reasons for C Section maybe if the baby has development conditions, the head is too big for a viginal delivery, the feet or shoulders are coming out first, the mother has health problems or genital problems or if there are problems regarding the placenta or umbilical cord. There is a minor risk involved in C section surgeries. They may be Bleeding. Blood clotting Breathing problems Infection Increased risk to future pregnancy Surgical injury to other organs or the child.

D&C (Dilation and Curettage)

A dilation and curettage procedure, also called a D&C, is a surgical procedure in which the cervix is dilated so that the uterine lining can be scraped with a curette (spoon-shaped instrument) to remove abnormal tissues. The procedure is performed for several reasons. Most commonly, D&C is done to help determine the cause of abnormal uterine bleeding. It can also be done to help determine the degree of abnormality of the endometrium in cancer cases or pre-cancerous cells that are detected by an in-office biopsy. The D&C procedure usually has a low risk of serious complications. It is normal to experience vaginal bleeding or pelvic cramping for a few days following a D&C.


Abortion is the abrupt ending of the pregnancy so that it will not result in childbirth. It may be performed surgically or through a pill, depending upon the condition and life of an embryo. It can be performed on various grounds until 20 weeks of pregnancy. Abortion through a pill can be performed anywhere by taking certain medicines, whereas, a surgical abortion involves the removal of the pregnancy via the vagina by surgical means. When a woman or a couple is not ready for a child and think that abortion is the correct thing to do, they can reach out to a gynaecologist or obstetrician and get it aborted.